Vaccine effectiveness and confounding

Factors affect both vaccination status and Covid-19 death rates.

One major question during the pandemic is: how effective are vaccines? Observational studies look at people without vaccines, comparing outcomes to vaccinated people.

Two possible study designs are:

  • Matched control: the study



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Anthony B. Masters

This blog looks at the use of statistics in Britain and beyond. It is written by RSS Statistical Ambassador and Chartered Statistician @anthonybmasters.