Age, period, and cohort effects

The book Generations by Bobby Duffy (KCL) highlights the import of generational thinking. All changes over time in attitudes, beliefs, and behaviour separate into three effects:

  • Age effects: People change as they age, due to biological and social reasons. For example, life events like retirement can affect people. The book refers to these as ‘lifecycle effects’.
  • Period effects: The change occurs in a consistent manner across all age groups. These effects are…



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